Ich bin einer von ihnen

Vor der Vollversammlung der Vereinten Nationen in New York hat Israels (Übergangs-)Ministerpräsident Yair Lapid gesagt, die Mehrheit seiner Bürger:innen sei für eine Zweistaatenlösung und »ich bin einer von ihnen.« Gleichzeitig nannte er Bedingungen für einen Palästinenserstaat – und warnte vor Iran.

Es sind noch sechs Wochen, bis zu den nächsten Knessetwahlen in Israel, dann wird sich zeigen, welchen Wert dieses Bekenntnis hat(te.)

Zum Thema: Spiegel | Times of Israel | Haaretz | NZZ

Bericht der Vereinten Nationen (UNSCO)

Die Bereitschaft der Palästinensischen Autonomiebehörde zur Staatsgründung abzusichern ist eine dringende Priorität

Die wachsende Kluft zwischen dem ins Stocken geratenen politischen Prozeß und den seit der Gründung der Palästinensischen Autonomiebehörde erzielten Fortschritten erreicht den Punkt der Unhaltbarkeit und gefährdet die historischen Errungenschaften in den besetzten palästinensischen Gebieten (OPT) erheblich

Freitag, 16. September 2022, Jerusalem – Ein kürzlich veröffentlichter Bericht der Vereinten Nationen nennt ein Paket strategischer Elemente, die, wenn sie von den Parteien und ihren Partnern umgesetzt werden, dazu beitragen können, die derzeitige negative Entwicklung vor Ort umzukehren, die palästinensische Wirtschaft und die palästinensischen Institutionen zu stärken und die Tragfähigkeit der Zweistaatenlösung zu erhalten, bis die formellen Verhandlungen wieder aufgenommen werden können.

Ein solches Paket wird in diesem Bericht detailliert beschrieben und umfaßt die folgenden vier Elemente:

  • Bekämpfung der anhaltenden Konflikt- und Instabilitätsursachen;
  • Stärkung der palästinensischen Institutionen und Bewältigung der Herausforderung der palästinensischen Staatsführung;
  • Verbesserung von Zugang, Bewegungsfreiheit und Handel und dadurch Schaffung von Raum für das Wachstum der palästinensischen Wirtschaft; und schließlich
  • bessere Anpassung des Rahmens der wirtschaftlichen und administrativen Beziehungen an die wirtschaftlichen Veränderungen der letzten Jahrzehnte.

Der Bericht, der vom Büro des Sonderkoordinators der Vereinten Nationen für den Nahost-Friedensprozeß (UNSCO) für die bevorstehende Sitzung des Ad-hoc-Verbindungsausschusses (AHLC) am 22. September 2022 in New York herausgegeben wurde, warnt vor der wachsenden Kluft zwischen dem festgefahrenen politischen Weg und der negativen Entwicklung vor Ort und den seit der Gründung der Palästinensischen Autonomiebehörde erzielten Fortschritten, die den Punkt der Unhaltbarkeit erreichen und die historischen Errungenschaften in den OPT gefährden. In dem Bericht wird dazu aufgerufen, die Bereitschaft der Palästinensischen Autonomiebehörde (PA) zur Erlangung der Eigenstaatlichkeit mit höchster Priorität sicherzustellen.

Im Bericht wird festgestellt, daß die israelische Regierung im vergangenen Jahr einige vielversprechende Maßnahmen ergriffen hat, insbesondere die Lockerung der Beschränkungen für den Personen- und Warenverkehr in das und aus dem besetzten Westjordanland und dem Gazastreifen. Die Anzahl der palästinensischen Arbeiter aus dem Westjordanland, die nach Israel einreisen dürfen, ist drastisch gestiegen. In dem Bericht wird hervorgehoben, daß im 2. Quartal 2022 rund 210.500 Palästinenser in Israel und in israelischen Siedlungen im Westjordanland arbeiteten. Dies entspricht einem Anstieg der Zahl der Pendler um 50 % seit 2019.

Für den Gazastreifen wird im Bericht festgestellt, daß bis Mitte September 2022 rund 15.500 Genehmigungen für Arbeiter, Händler und Geschäftsleute aus dem Gazastreifen ausgestellt wurden, um nach Israel zu pendeln. Das daraus erzielte Einkommen hat vielen Haushalten im Gazastreifen geholfen, Schulden zu tilgen, lebensnotwendige Anschaffungen zu tätigen, mehr Lebensmittel zu kaufen und sich medizinisch behandeln zu lassen.

Im Bericht wird jedoch betont, daß mehr getan werden muss und daß die Verbindung zwischen solchen wirtschaftlichen Schritten und einer Zwei-Staaten-Lösung klar und konsequent sein muß.

Die Berichterstatter warnen auch vor der derzeitigen Zersplitterung der palästinensischen Gebiete, wodurch der Raum für das Wachstum der palästinensischen Wirtschaft verkleinert, die humanitäre Not und der Konflikt verschärft und die Lebensfähigkeit eines künftigen palästinensischen Staates untergraben wird. Es werden Schritte zur weiteren Lockerung der israelischen Bewegungs- und Zugangsbeschränkungen im Westjordanland und im Gazastreifen sowie zur Verbesserung des Zugangs der Palästinenser zu Land und Ressourcen, zur besseren Verknüpfung der Wirtschaft im Westjordanland und im Gazastreifen und zur Überwindung der internen palästinensischen Spaltung skizziert.

Der Sonderkoordinator der Vereinten Nationen für den Friedensprozeß im Nahen Osten, Tor Wennesland, erklärte, daß „es strategische Initiativen gibt, die die Parteien sowohl gemeinsam als auch unabhängig voneinander und mit Unterstützung internationaler Partner ergreifen können, um die Palästinensische Autonomiebehörde zu stärken, den notwendigen Raum für eine lebensfähige palästinensische Wirtschaft zu schaffen und die humanitäre, entwicklungspolitische, steuerliche und regierungspolitische Situation der Palästinenser zu verbessern“. Er fügte hinzu, daß „diese Initiativen zusammen dazu beitragen würden, das palästinensische Engagement gegenüber den israelischen staatlichen Institutionen wieder ins Gleichgewicht zu bringen und der Zweistaatenlösung neue Impulse zu verleihen.“

Im Bericht wird unterstrichen, daß nur durch eine Umkehrung der negativen Trends vor Ort, insbesondere der wachsenden Unsicherheit im besetzten Westjordanland, echte Fortschritte in allen Bereichen erzielt werden können. „Letztendlich gibt es keinen Ersatz für einen legitimen politischen Prozeß, der die Parteien zu sinnvollen Verhandlungen zurückführt und die Kernfragen des Konflikts löst“, heißt es in dem Bericht weiter.

Sonderkoordinator Wennesland äußerte sich sehr besorgt über die sich verschlechternde Sicherheitslage und die nicht hinnehmbaren täglichen Verluste an Menschenleben im besetzten Westjordanland.  Er rief alle betroffenen Parteien auf, die Spannungen unverzüglich abzubauen und forderte die politischen und gesellschaftlichen Führer auf allen Seiten auf, jetzt zu handeln und in gutem Glauben einen Dialog aufzunehmen, um zu verhindern, dass die Situation außer Kontrolle gerät.

Quelle der Presseerklärung:

UN report: Ensuring the readiness of the Palestinian Authority (PA) for statehood is an urgent priority.

Vollständiger Bericht:

OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COORDINATOR FOR THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS. Report to the Ad-Hoc Liaison Committee, 22 September 2022.

U.S./Middle East Project

Statement von Daniel Levy, Presidemt von USMEP vor dem Sicherheitsrat der Vereinten Nationen am 25. August 2022:

„I would like to thank the Council and the Chinese presidency in particular for allowing me to share some thoughts with you today. The events of earlier this month covered in detail by Special Envoy Wennesland are as concerning as they are predictable. To be very clear, Israelis deserve security; Palestinians deserve security…. „

Hier zum Zuschauen auf Youtube – und darunter das Dokument der Rede zum herunterladen:

Gaza | OCHA Flash Update #2 am Abend

Escalation in the Gaza Strip and Israel | Flash Update #2 as of 18:00, 8 August 2022

KEY POINTS

Following intense hostilities between Palestinian militant factions, led by Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and Israel between 5 and 7 August, a ceasefire brokered by Egypt and the UN came into effect on 7 August at 23:30.

The Israeli army and the PIJ have confirmed the end of their respective military operations.
  
OHCHR confirmed a total of 46 Palestinian casualties, including 16 children. MoH in Gaza reported 360 Palestinians injured, including at least 151 children, 58 women and 19 older persons. 

Magen David Adom reported that 47 Israelis have been injured; Israeli authorities reported 70.

Israeli security started to gradually remove restrictions on crossings with Gaza imposed on 2 August, allowing limited movement of people and authorized commodities, including fuel.
   
The Gaza Power Plant, shut down since 6 August, resumed function on 8 August in the afternoon.

1,761 housing units have sustained damages. 450 Palestinians have been internally displaced, and 8,500 people have been impacted by the damages. 

Gaza is slowly starting to return to routine life with the opening of public and private works, markets and educational facilities.

Read the full report

Gaza | OCHA Flash Update #1 am Abend

Escalation in the Gaza Strip and Israel | Flash Update #1 as of 18:00, 6 August 2022

KEY POINTS

On 5 August, Israeli airstrikes were conducted in multiple locations in Gaza, including Gaza city, Beit Hanoun and Khan Younis. Subsequently, several rockets were fired from multiple locations across Gaza towards Israel. Exchanges of fire continued throughout 6 August.

According to the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Gaza, as of 6 August at 15:30, at least 15 Palestinians had been killed, including a 5-year-old girl, and about 125 injured.  The UN has so far verified 14 of these casualties.

The Gaza Power Plant (GPP) shut down at noon on 6 August due to lack of fuel, causing rolling power cuts exceeding 20 hours per day. This places at severe risk the continuation of basic essential services.  
The Israeli authorities have kept their border crossings with Gaza closed since 2 August, citing security concerns. As a result, people have not been allowed in and out, medical cases have been unable to exit and essential commodities, including food and fuel, have not entered.

Due to the limited availability of fuel, aggravated by the closure of Gaza’s crossings since 2 August, the general electricity supply in Gaza is already limited and expected to stop in the next days. This will seriously impact economic and social rights, including the supply of clean water, hygiene and healthcare.  The right to health is already severely compromised due to longstanding shortages and the heavily restricted movement in and out of Gaza, including for patients who have been unable to travel for care outside of Gaza.

The UN Humanitarian Coordinator issued a statement calling on all sides for an immediate de-escalation and halt to the violence, to avoid destructive ramifications, particularly for civilians.

Situation overview

On 2 August, Israeli forces arrested a senior operative of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) in Jenin, West Bank. Subsequently, the PIJ warned in a statement that it would “respond to any aggression.” Later that day, the Israeli authorities imposed a complete closure of crossings with Gaza, preventing movement of people and essential commodities in and out, citing security concerns.

On 5 August at 16:00, Israeli forces conducted a targeted airstrike against a senior PIJ official, Taysir Al –Ja’bari, who was reportedly killed in the attack. Several Israeli airstrikes followed during the evening in multiple locations, including in Gaza City, Beit Hanoun and Khan Younis, as part of an operation codenamed “Breaking Dawn”.

At about 21:00 on 5 August, several short- and long-term rockets were fired from multiple locations in Gaza towards Israel. Exchanges of fire continued throughout the day.

Airstrikes in the Gaza Strip resulted in death, injuries and the destruction of a number of residential buildings and rocket fire launched from Gaza resulted in the damage to one home in Israel, injured one person, two military and caused limited damage to property. According to the MoH in Gaza, as of 6 August at 15:30, 15 Palestinians had been killed, including a 5-year-old girl, and about 125 have been injured. According to Israeli media, two Israeli soldiers and one person have reportedly been wounded in southern Israel.

The humanitarian community is preparing for an eventual activation of the Inter-Agency Contingency Plan for the scale-up of the humanitarian response should the situation further deteriorate, and significant displacement occur. UNRWA has not yet opened any Designated Emergency Shelters (DES) for the displaced. Non-food items (NFIs) and ready-to-eat food Items are transferred across Gaza to be ready for distribution inside the DES in case of further displacement.

HUMANITARIAN NEEDS & RESPONSE
Protection

The UN has verified 14 fatalities so far. The Gaza MoH has reported an additional fatality, not yet verified by the UN. Of them, at least two have been determined as civilians, including a 5-year-old girl. The injured reported by the Gaza MoH include at least 23 children and 13 women.

Protection Cluster partners are monitoring and documenting possible violations of international humanitarian law and international human rights law, as well as the number of fatalities.

The Mine Action Area of Responsibility (AoR) has started implementing their Emergency Risk Education plan. The messages are to focus on preparedness and protection during the emergency, including safety tips while evacuating and seeking safety, and to be delivered through different mediums, including radio and social media.

The Child Protection AoR is assessing the impact of the escalating conflict on vulnerable groups, especially children, and foresees the need for expanded, structured and specialized child protection, mental health, and psychosocial support services. Remote counseling for children and their families including psychological first aid is being reactivated, including a hotline.
Shelter

Forty families are known to be displaced since 5 August in host communities, including 30 families that we in the tower building in Gaza city that sustained damage due to an airstrike. The Ministry of Public Works and Housing confirmed that some 650 housing units have been partially damaged, of which 29 are unhabitable, 11 are totally destroyed, while the others sustained minor damage. Efforts are ongoing with Ministry of Social Development to assist those affected.

The Gaza Electricity Distribution Company (GEDCO) indicated that a number of electricity lines are being fixed after sustaining some damage.

Health

Medical and diagnostic devices are in some cases not functional due to the long-standing restrictions in bringing some supplies into the Gaza strip. Additionally, there are concerns regarding shortages of fuel for ambulances and for generators in hospitals.

Trauma care supplies are in place, but there is a chronic shortage of essential drugs in Gaza. According to the MoH, there is a shortage of 40 per cent in medications, 32 per cent in medical supplies, and 60 per cent in laboratory consumables.

UNRWA’s health centres were open normally on 6 August and received patients with no disruption.

The number of ambulances by the Palestine Red Crescent Society (PRCS) has increased from 11 to 23. PRCS has also increased the number of beds in Al Quds hospital and are ready to support Ash Shifaa hospital by receiving overflow cases in operating theatres in PRCS hospitals.

WHO has pre-positioned supplies in main hospitals and has previously provided training in mass casualty management.
Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

No damage to water or sanitation infrastructure has been reported. Nevertheless, the announced power supply reduction plan in the Gaza Strip, due to lack of fuel, is anticipated to significantly interrupt the delivery of WASH services, including the reduction of water supply from the water wells and desalination plants, in addition to the reduction of the quality of the output of the wastewater treatment.

The replenishment of chemicals for the treatment of water in the desalination plant could be undermined because of lack of access and the entry of supplies to the Gaza Strip. Thus, WASH services providers will not be able to operate the WASH facilities with the required capacities if access constraints continue. Additionally, chemical stocks for the desalination plant need immediate replenishment.

Due to security concerns, the three main wastewater treatment facilities are being operated remotely.

If the electricity supply stops, the wastewater treatment plants will shut down, resulting in 100,000 cubic metres of raw wastewater being discharged to the sea every day.
Food security

UNRWA’s food distribution centres were open normally on 6 August and received beneficiaries with no disruption. UNRWA’s current wheat stocks will only sustain a limited segment of the population for one week and a half.

Animal fodder and production is at risk due to the closure of the Israeli goods crossing. The overall capacity of fodder stockpiles in Gaza is no more than seven days. Most fodder traders have not been able to import fodders during the last week. The continued closure of the crossing will lead to a significant damage in this sector and severe lack of white meat in Gaza.

Education

As schools are closed on summer vacation until 28 August, no direct impact on schooling has been observed. At least five higher education institutions in the Gaza Strip have suspended operations until further notice. Reports indicate that at least one higher education institution was damaged in a bombardment that hit nearby.

Erster Bericht vorgelegt

United Nations Independent International Commission of Inquiry

Report: ending the continued Israeli occupation and discrimination against Palestinians is essential to stopping the conflict and halting the persistent cycle of violence, while a ‘culture of impunity’ feeds resentment and fuels recurrent tensions, instability, and protraction of conflict
The continued occupation by Israel of Palestinian territory and discrimination against Palestinians are the key root causes of the recurrent tensions, instability and protraction of conflict in the region, according to the first report by the new United Nations Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and Israel, issued 7 June 2022.

International officials: Massafer Yatta Palestinians should be allowed to stay in their homes with dignity

16 May 2022, Massafer Yatta (Hebron, southern West Bank)

Today, the Humanitarian Coordinator a.i., Samer Abdel Jaber, visited the Massafer Yatta area of the southern West Bank, to meet with Palestinian residents at risk of forcible transfer. Along with colleagues from the United Nations (UN) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), he briefed senior diplomats who joined the visit.

“Following the recent court ruling on Massafer Yatta, I call upon the Israeli government to allow residents to remain here with dignity,” Mr. Abdel Jaber stated. “Living here in safety is what residents wish for, as some of them told us today. We, the international community represented here, are committed to support them.”

The visit to Massafer Yatta, was attended by officials from five UN Agencies and eleven NGOs, as well as by diplomats representing 24 countries, including Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the European Union.

“As the occupying power, the Israeli authorities’ responsibility is to protect Palestinian civilians,” Abdel Jaber stressed. “Forcing thirteen communities out to make room for military trainings is contradictory to that imperative, and simply inhumane and illegal.”

On 4 May, the Israeli High Court of Justice approved the eviction of Palestinians living in Massafer Yatta to make room for Israeli military trainings. About 1,200 people, including 580 children, are now at imminent risk of forced eviction and displacement. They stand to lose their homes, belongings, access to water, livelihoods, primary health facilities and schools. This could amount to forcible transfer, a grave breach of international humanitarian law and, thus a war crime.